Apache Druid is written in Java and requires a Java runtime. This page provides details about obtaining and configuring a Java runtime for Druid.
Selecting a Java runtime
Druid fully supports Java 8 and 11, and has experimental support for Java 17. The project team recommends Java 11.
The project team recommends using an OpenJDK-based Java distribution. There are many free and actively-supported distributions available, including Amazon Corretto, Azul Zulu, and Eclipse Temurin. The project team does not recommend any specific distribution over any other.
Druid relies on the environment variables
DRUID_JAVA_HOME to find Java on the machine. You can set
DRUID_JAVA_HOME if there is more than one instance of Java. To verify Java requirements for your environment, run the
In general, the project team recommends using the G1 collector with default settings. This is the default collector in
Java 11. To enable G1 on Java 8, use
-XX:+UseG1GC. There is no harm in explicitly specifying this on Java 11 as well.
Garbage collector selection and tuning is a form of sport in the Java community. There may be situations where adjusting garbage collection configuration improves or worsens performance. The project team's guidance is that most people do not need to stray away from G1 with default settings.
Java 9 and beyond (including Java 11) include the capability for strong encapsulation of internal JDK APIs. Druid uses certain internal JDK APIs for functionality- and performance-related reasons. In Java 11, this leads to log messages like the following:
WARNING: An illegal reflective access operation has occurred WARNING: Use --illegal-access=warn to enable warnings of further illegal reflective access operations WARNING: All illegal access operations will be denied in a future release
These warning messages are harmless, and can be ignored. However, you can avoid them entirely if you wish by adding the following Java command line parameters. These parameters are not part of the default configurations that ship with Druid, because Java 8 does not recognize these parameters and fails to start up if they are provided.
To do this, add the following lines to your
--add-exports=java.base/jdk.internal.ref=ALL-UNNAMED --add-exports=java.base/jdk.internal.misc=ALL-UNNAMED --add-opens=java.base/java.lang=ALL-UNNAMED --add-opens=java.base/java.io=ALL-UNNAMED --add-opens=java.base/java.nio=ALL-UNNAMED --add-opens=java.base/jdk.internal.ref=ALL-UNNAMED --add-opens=java.base/sun.nio.ch=ALL-UNNAMED
Additionally, tasks run by MiddleManagers execute in separate JVMs. The command line for
these JVMs is given by
middleManager/runtime.properties. Java command line parameters for tasks must be specified here. For example, use
a line like the following:
MaxDirectMemorySize parameters in the line above are merely an example. You may use different
values in your specific environment.
Druid has experimental support for Java 17.
An important change in Java 17 is that strong encapsulation is enabled by default. The various
--add-exports parameters listed in the strong encapsulation section are
required in all
jvm.config files and in
MiddleManagers. Failure to include these parameters leads to failure of various operations.
In addition, Druid's launch scripts detect Java 17 and log the following message rather than starting up:
Druid requires Java 8 or 11. Your current version is: 17.X.Y.
You can skip this check with an environment variable: